The relationship with cancer and Tumor Supressor Gene (P53)

Cancer is caused

Cancer is caused by abnormal cell growth and is classified into benign and malignant tumors. Benign tumors grow relatively slowly and do not metastasize. However malignant tumors grow faster than benign tumors and can spread to other organs in the body. A disease commonly referred to as cancer is a malignant tumor.

Tumor suppressor genes inhibit the division and growth of indiscriminate cells. Losing the function of these genes can lead to overgrowth of cells which can lead to cancer.

Tumor suppressor genes are closely related to hereditary cancer. When a tumor suppressor gene loses its function, the function of the genes change such as loss of chromosomal regions including in the gene-base replacement. Due to those factors, the function of the genes change.

What is P53?

CANCER P53

The previous representative serum markers did not detect malignant tumors sensitively and uniquely. As an alternative to this, cancer genes related to tumor development, tumor inhibitors, or substances produced from them have recently become the markers available for early detection and observation of tumors in relation to their role in the tumor’s development mechanism.

P53 is emerging as the genetic marker most closely related to cancer. The TP53 gene provides instructions for making a protein called tumor protein p53 (or p53). This protein acts as a tumor suppressor, which means that it regulates cell division by keeping cells from growing and dividing (proliferating) too fast or in an uncontrolled way.[1]

The p53 protein is located in the nucleus of cells throughout the body, where it attaches (binds) directly to DNA. When the DNA in a cell becomes damaged by agents such as toxic chemicals, radiation, or ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight, this protein plays a critical role in determining whether the DNA will be repaired or the damaged cell will self-destruct (undergo apoptosis). If the DNA can be repaired, p53 activates other genes to fix the damage.

If the DNA cannot be repaired, this protein prevents the cell from dividing and signals it to undergo apoptosis. By stopping cells with mutated or damaged DNA from dividing, p53 helps prevent the development of tumors.[1]

Because p53 is essential for regulating DNA repair and cell division, it has been nicknamed the “guardian of the genome.”

Health condition with genetic TP53 gene and mutation

Let’s take a look at the TP53 gene with the examples of lung cancer which is one of Korea’s five major cancers. Lung cancer is generally divided into two types, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, based on the size of the affected cells when viewed under a microscope. Small cell lung cancers nearly always have TP53 gene mutations; however, these mutations may also occur in non-small cell lung cancer.

TP53 gene mutations change single amino acids in p53, which impair the protein’s function. Without functioning p53, cell proliferation is not regulated effectively and DNA damage can accumulate in cells. Such cells may continue to divide in an uncontrolled way, leading to tumor growth.[1] Additional genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors contribute to a person’s cancer risk.

Fucoidan From Marine Brown Algae Attenuates Pancreatic Cancer Progression by Regulating p53

Poor pancreatic cancer (PC) prognosis, the one of the major 5 cancer in Korea and well known that it is difficult to cure, has been attributed to its resistance to apoptosis and propensity for early systemic dissemination. Existing therapeutic strategies are often circumvented by the molecular crosstalk between cell-signalling pathways.

p53 is mutated in more than 50% of PC and NFκB is constitutively activated in therapy-resistant residual disease; these mutations and activations account for the avoidance of cell death and metastasis. Recently, it demonstrated the anti-PC potential of fucoidan extract from marine brown alga. In the study, it aimed to characterize the active fractions of fucoidan extract to identify their select anti-PC efficacy, and to define the mechanism involved.

Five fractions of fucoidan isolated by ion exchange chromatography were tested for their potential in genetically diverse human PC cell lines. All fractions exerted significant dose-dependent and time-dependent regulation of cell survival.

Fucoidans induced apoptosis, activated caspase -3, -8 and -9, and cleaved Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP).[2] Moreover, fucoidan treatment increased cellular p53 in PC cells and reverted NFκB forced-expression-related p53 reduction. The results suggest that fucoidan regulates PC progression and that fucoidan may target p53-NFκB crosstalk and dictate apoptosis in PC cells.

Other good part of Fucoidan: Gene apoptosis

Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide constitutes fucose as a major principle sugar along with other monosugars such as glucuronic acid, xylose and galactose. The core value of fucoidan in terms of various cancer types were substantially exhibited through targeting the key apoptotic molecules and subsequently mitigate the toxicity that are essentially included in the chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. [3]

Fucoidan triggers programmed cell death by decreasing the release of three metalloproteinase enzymes: MMP-3, and MMP-9. Fucoidan decreases NF-kappaB binding activity, p65 nuclear movement of proteins from the cellular fluid to the nucleus, and IκB-α degradation, which prevents inflammation.[4]

Fucoidan stimulates an increase in natural killer (NK) cells and a decrease of transcription factor AP-I, which is involved in cellular growth and division. Fucoidan also kills T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) by inactivating NF-kB, a regulator of antiapoptotic proteins. [4] Fucoidan activates caspases 8 and 9, which are enzymes involved in programmed cell death.

How to uptake Fucoidan

As mentioned earlier, Fucoidan is a food with enormous potential for preventing cancer and its metastasis. However, in order to consume enough Fucoidan in the form of sea algae (e.g. seaweed) to affect the body, you need to consume very large amounts of seaweed every day.

Even if we consume a certain amount of food everyday, we choose a dietary supplement such as a nutrient or vitamin to supplement nutrients that are difficult to fill that are lack in normal meals. We must continue to consume it with a health supplement made by Fucoidan extracts using seaweeds grown in clean areas just like we choose dietary supplements. You can consume enough Fucoidan to fight cancer.

Reference
[1] TP53 gene: tumor protein p53 US national library of medicine
[2] Fucoidan from marine brown algae attenuates pancreatic cancer progression by regulating p53
[3] Anticancer effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, genetic damage and apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cancer cells
[4] 4 Fucoidan Health Benefits (including cancer) + Side effect

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